Fumaric Acid, CAS# 110-17-8, is a dicarboxylic acid manufactured through catalytic isomerisation of maleic acid, available as White crystalline powder. Fumaric Acid is widely used as acidity regulator. It is affirmed by US FDA as GRAS(generally recognized as safe) and widely accepted as safe food additive in many countries with E number E297.
digestive upsets and skin flushing.
As Fumaric Acid is widely known as safe, there is no limit on dosage of intake. However, we still recommend consumers to consult professionals before using large quantity of Fumaric Acid for long period.
Special groups refer to newborns, children, pregnant and any other applicable vulnerable groups.
There is no evidence that Fumaric Acid could have any negative effects on these vulnerable groups. It should be safe to use Fumaric Acid in food for newborns and pregnant. However, we still recommend consumers to consult professionals before using large quantity of Fumaric Acid for long period in food for newborns or pregnant.
Generally recognized as safe(GRAS) is a FDA designation that a specific substance or ingredient is generally considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. Fumaric Acid is considered safe by FDA according to existing data and granted GRAS status.
No breaking news or public health crises reported about Fumaric Acid reported up to now.
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1. Addition of an oral histamine antagonist to reduce adverse events associated with fumaric acid esters in the treatment of psoriasis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. [Br J Dermatol. 2014 Jul 17]
Author: Balak DM, Fallah-Arani S, Venema CM, Neumann HA, Thio HB.
2. The fumaric acid ester BG-12: a new option in MS therapy. [Expert Rev Neurother. 2013 Aug]
Author: Lee DH, Stangel M, Gold R, Linker RA.
3. Treatment of psoriasis with non-registered fumaric acid esters in The Netherlands: a nationwide survey among Dutch dermatologists. [J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Jul]
Author: Fallah Arani S, Balak DM, Neumann HA, Kuipers MV, Thio HB.
4. Effectiveness and safety of fumaric acid esters in children with psoriasis: a retrospective analysis of 14 patients from The Netherlands. [Br J Dermatol. 2013 Jun]
Author: Balak DM, Oostveen AM, Bousema MT, Venema AW, Arnold WP, Seyger MM, Thio HB.